Isaac Newton




 
Isaac Newton was born prematurely on January 4, 1643 in a peasant family in Woolsthorpe Manor, a small village in the county of Lincolnshire, England. He had a complicated childhood. Three months before her birth her father died and at three years old her mother left him in charge of her grandparents when her new husband refused to raise a stepchild. Newton would not return to his native village until the death of his stepfather in 1653. During his childhood and youth he was an introverted child, with few friendships and little interest in his studies, although he did not lack intelligence, curiosity and imagination. At the age of 12, he began studying elementary studies at Grantham Elementary School. In 1661, at 18 years of age, he entered Trinity College at the University of Cambridge to study mathematics under the tutelage of Isaac Barrow. After his graduation (four years later), Newton would finish completely dedicating himself to the study of mathematics and natural philosophy making transcendental discoveries in the field of calculus (with the development of integral and differential calculus, among other findings), physics ( describing the laws that explain the movement of macroscopic bodies) and optics (with his theory of colors). Of all his studies and discoveries, he highlights his work "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" (Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica), published in 1687, in which he laid the foundations of modern physics and engineering through his laws of motion and the theory of gravity, marking a before and after in the history of science (nowadays it is still widely considered as the most influential work in the history of physics)."Newton was the greatest genius that ever existed and also the most fortunate since you can only find once a system that governs the world."Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813). Mathematician and physicist Franco-Italian. Finally, after a long life devoted to the development of science and the understanding of the universe, Newton died on March 31, 1727 (84 years) in London after a kidney dysfunction while he slept. Eight days later, on April 8, 1727, he received the honor of being the first scientist buried in Westminster Abbey. "I do not know how I can be seen by the world, but in my opinion, I've behaved like a child playing at the edge of the sea, and having fun looking from time to time for a more polished stone and a more beautiful shell than normal , while the great ocean of truth was exposed before me completely unknown ». Isaac Newton (1643-1727). English physicist and mathematician.From the end of 1664 he worked intensively on different mathematical problems. He then addressed the binomial theorem, based on the works of John Wallis, and developed a method of his own called calculation of fluxions. Shortly after he returned to the family farm because of an epidemic of bubonic plague. Retired with his family between 1665 and 1666, he experienced a very intense period of discoveries, among which the law of the inverse of the square of distance in gravitation, his development of the bases of classical mechanics, the formalization of the method of fluxiones and the generalization of the binomial theorem, also showing the physical nature of the colors. However, he remained silent for a long time about his discoveries due to the fear of criticism and the theft of his ideas. In 1667 he resumed his studies at the University of Cambridge. Development of the calculation. From 1667 to 1670 he undertook research on optics and was elected fellow of Trinity College. In 1669, his mentor, Isaac Barrow, renounced his Lucasiana Chair of mathematics, position in which Newton would succeed him until 1696. The same year he sent John Collins, through Barrow, his Analysis per aequationes infinite terminorum number. For Newton, this manuscript represents the introduction to a powerful general method, which he would develop later: his differential and integral calculus. Newton had discovered the principles of his differential and integral calculus around 1665-1666 and, during the next decade, he developed at least three different approaches to his new analysis. Newton and Leibniz staged a bitter controversy about the authorship of the development of this branch of mathematics. The historians of science consider that both developed the calculation independently, although the notation of Leibniz was better and the formulation of Newton was better applied to practical problems. The controversy further divided the British and continental mathematicians. However, this separation was not so deep that Newton and Leibniz stopped exchanging results.