Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) is best known for his theory of monads and pre-established harmony. The monads are substantial forms endowed with an internal determination whose genesis is found in God, the primal monad, creator of the infinite other monads that make up the world. All are individual substances, they are souls and have, in contrast to God, a body. Between monads. Leibniz believed that each piece of matter is not only infinitely divisible, but is divided endlessly into more parts, each of which has its own movement. "In the most minute part of matter there is a world of creatures, of living beings, animals, entelechies, souls. Each piece of nature can be conceived as a garden full of plants and like a pond full of fish, "writes Leibniz. The soul, main particle. According to the German thinker, the branches of plants and the drops of a juice are in turn receptacles of other worlds. In their philosophical conception, the monads possess a hierarchical order. There exists in all human beings a main monad that Leibniz calls "soul". Leibniz believed that everything created is in perpetual transformation and that continuous flow is an expression of the yearning of the monads. Evil as a lack. The philosopher conceived the real world as the best possible. He affirmed the innocence of God in the face of the accusation that God has created an imperfect world in which evil, cruelty and poverty flourish. Evil, thought the philosopher, is an arbitrary or accidental lack of good. Years later, Voltaire would ridicule that vision of the world of the German philosopher in his novel Candide. In it, the hero is a believing optimist who, following Leibniz's thought, celebrates with stunning naïveté the terrible blows that destiny gives him. The balance between good and evil that Leibniz conceived was also harshly questioned by the thinker Voltaire. Metaphysics and reason. For his part, Leibniz criticized Spinoza because he failed to make room for two irrefutable concepts: God is a transcendent being who creates the world and the will is free. He believed that it was the consequence of a philosophy that had followed the wrong path and argued that the Cartesian approach was wrong since it led to Spinoza. In some respects, Leibniz was more forceful than the Dutch philosopher in stating that metaphysics should be based on pure reason. He proclaimed the principle of non-contradiction. "X is true or false, but not both at the same time." Prophet of the modern. He also postulated the principle of sufficient reason. "Nothing is for no reason; or, everything has an explanation. " Apart from his controversial view of this world as the best possible, Leibniz has greatly influenced modern subjectivism. "His thought consumes the foundation of the modern individual," says the French philosopher Alain Renaut. THE CREATOR OF THE MODERN GERMAN UNIVERSITY. Although Leibniz never came to build a system-in fact his ideas had to be traced in unpublished letters and manuscripts-his influence on other German thinkers is beyond doubt. He is recognized as the founder of modern German academic philosophy.